1 
2015.08.27 
 introduction to the course
 negligible and noticeable functions
 (uniform and nonuniform) probabilistic polynomial time algorithms
 oneway functions (strong and weak)

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 2.2 , Oneway functions: definitions
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Brian Gluzman

2 
2015.09.01 
 hardness amplification: for weak to strong oneway functions

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 2.3, Weak oneway functions imply strong ones
Videos:
Scribe notes: by David Dinh

3 
2015.09.03 
 universal oneway functions
 hardcore predicates
 Goldreich–Levin predicate

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 2.4.1, Universal oneway function
 § 2.5, Hardcore predicates
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 7.3, Hardcore predicates from oneway functions
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Akshayaram Srinivasan

4 
2015.09.08 
 statistical vs computational indistinghuishability of distributions
 hybrid argument
 pseudorandomness generators (PRGs)
 oneway permutations imply PRGs with 1bit expansion

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 3.1, Motivating discussion
 § 3.2, Computational indistinguishability
 § 3.3.1, Standard definition of pseudorandom generators
 § 3.4, Constructions based on oneway permutations
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 7.8, Computational indistinguishability
 § 7.4, Constructing pseudorandom generators
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Tobias Boelter

5 
2015.09.10 
 PRGs evaluated on independent seeds
 PRGs with 1bit expansion imply PRGs with polynomial expansion
 pseudorandom functions

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 3.3.2, Increasing the expansion factor
 § 3.6, Pseudorandom functions
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 7.5, Constructing pseudorandom functions
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Pratyush Mishra

6 
2015.09.15 
 PRGs imply pseudorandom functions
 pseudorandom permutations
 Feistel permutations

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 3.6, Pseudorandom functions
 § 3.7, Pseudorandom permutations
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 7.5, Constructing pseudorandom functions
 § 7.6, Constructing (strong) pseudorandom permutations
Videos:
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Brian Gluzman

7 
2015.09.17 
 Luby–Rackoff construction of pseudorandom permutations
 commitment schemes
 oneway permutations imply 1bit commitment schemes

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 3.7, Pseudorandom permutations
 § 4.4.1, Commitment schemes
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Rohan Mathuria

8 
2015.09.22 
 1bit commitment schemes imply multibit commitment schemes
 intro to encryption schemes
 singlemessage perfect message indistinguishability
 onetime pad and its limitations
 singlemessage computational message indistinguishability

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 5.1, The basic setting
 § 5.2, Definitions of security
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 2, Perfectly secret encryption
 § 3.1, Computational security
 § 3.2, Defining computationally secure encryption
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Pratyush Mishra

9 
2015.09.24 
 equivalence of message indistinguishability and semantic security
 shrinking onetime pad's key with PRGs
 multimessage computational message indistinguishability
 security against chosen plaintext attacks

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 5.3.3, Privatekey encryption schemes
 § 5.4.3, Chosen plaintext attack
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 3.3, Constructing secure encryption schemes
 § 3.4, Stronger security notions
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Eleanor Cawthon

10 
2015.09.29 
 PRFs imply security against chosen plaintext attacks
 modes of encryption
 security against CPA vs CCA1 vs CCA2

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 5.4.4, Chosen ciphertext attack
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 3.5, Constructing CPAsecure encryption schemes
 § 3.6, Modes of operation
 § 3.7, Chosenciphertext attacks
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Joseph Hui

11 
2015.10.01 
 message authentication codes
 constructions based on PRFs
 CPA security and MACs imply CCA2 security

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 6.1, The setting and definitional issues
 § 6.3, Constructions of message authentication schemes
 § 6.1.5.1, Augmenting the attack with a verification oracle
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 4.1, Message integrity
 § 4.2, Message authentication codes  definitions
 § 4.3, Constructing secure message authentication codes
 § 4.4, CBCMAC
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by David Fifield

12 
2015.10.06 
 CPA security and MACs imply CCA2 security
 combining CPA security and MACs in other (insecure) ways
 collisionresistant functions
 Merkle–Damgård transform

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 6.2.3, Constructing collisionfree hashing functions
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 4.5, Authenticated encryption
 § 5.1.1, Collision resistance
 § 5.2, Domain extension: the Merkle–Damgård transform
 § 5.4, Generic attacks on hash functions
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Tongzhou Wang

13 
2015.10.08 
 intro to publickey cryptography
 publickey encryption schemes
 trapdoor oneway permutations
 TOWPs imply publickey encryption schemes
 RSA as a TOWP
 hybrid encryption

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 5.1.1, Privatekey versus publickey schemes
 § 5.1.2, The syntax of encryption schemes
 § 5.3.4, Publickey encryption schemes
 § 5.5.1, On using encryption schemes
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 11.1, Publickey encryption  an overview
 § 11.2, Definitions
 § 11.5, RSA encryption
 § 13.1, Publickey encryption from trapdoor permutations
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Xingyou Song

14 
2015.10.13 
 finish hybrid encryption
 DDH assumption (and where it might hold)
 ElGamal encryption scheme
 CCA2 security in the asymmetric setting

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 5.5.3, On some popular schemes
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 8.3, Cryptographic assumptions in cyclic groups
 § 11.3, Hybrid encryption and the KEM/DEM paradigm
 § 11.4, CDH/DDHbased encryption
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Peter Manohar

15 
2015.10.15 
 CCA2 security in the random oracle model
 definition of signature schemes

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 6.1, The setting and definitional issues
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 11.5.5, A CCASecure KEM in the randomoracle model
 § 12.1, Digital signatures  an overview
 § 12.2, Definitions
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Lynn Chua

16 
2015.10.20 
 onetime signatures
 hashthensign paradigm
 key refreshing

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 6.2, Lengthrestricted signature scheme
 § 6.4.1, Onetime signature schemes
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 12.2, The hashandsign paradigm
 § 12.6.1, Lamport's signature scheme
 § 12.6.2, Chainbased signatures
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Benjamin Caulfield

17 
2015.10.22 
 from onetime signatures to full security
 signatures in the random oracle model
 signcryption

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 2
 § 6.4.2, From onetime signature schemes to general ones
 Introduction to Modern Cryptography
 § 12.4.2, RSAFDH
 § 12.6.3, Treebased signatures
 § 12.9, Signcryption
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Willem Y. Van Eck

18 
2015.10.27 
 interactive proofs
 graph isomorphism is in IP
 honestverifier zero knowledge

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 4.1, Zeroknowledge proofs: motivation
 § 4.2, Interactive proof systems
 § 4.3, Zeroknowledge proofs: definitions
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Pasin Manurangsi

19 
2015.10.29 
 interactive proofs
 honestverifier zero knowledge
 (maliciousverifier) zero knowledge
 perfect zero knowledge for graph isomorphism

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 4.1, Zeroknowledge proofs: motivation
 § 4.2, Interactive proof systems
 § 4.3, Zeroknowledge proofs: definitions
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Chenyang Yuan

20 
2015.11.03 
 computational zero knowledge for graph 3coloring

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 4.4, Zeroknowledge proofs for NP
Papers:
Scribe notes: by Praagya Singh

21 
2015.11.05 
 computational zero knowledge for graph 3coloring
 zero knowledge is not closed under parallel composition
 witness indistinguishability
 parallel composition for witness indistinguishability

Lecture notes:
Textbooks:
 Foundations of Cryptography, Volume 1
 § 4.4, Zeroknowledge proofs for NP
 § 4.5.4, ZeroKnowledge and parallel Composition
 § 4.6, Witness indistinguishability and hiding
Papers:

22 
2015.11.10 
 VBB obfuscation for TMs and circuits
 impossibility of VBB obfuscation

Lecture notes:
Papers:

23 
2015.11.12 
 indistinguishability obfuscation (iO)
 witness encryption
 iO implies witness encryption
 iO and OWFs imply publickey encryption
 bestpossible obfuscation (BPO)
 VBBO implies BPO
 BPO vs IO

Lecture notes:
Papers:
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Joseph Hui

24 
2015.11.17 
 iO amplification: from NC1 to all circuits
 iO and coRP != NP implies OWFs

Lecture notes:
Papers:
 Candidate indistinguishability obfuscation and functional encryption for all circuits (by Sanjam Garg, Craig Gentry, Shai Halevi, Mariana Raykova, Amit Sahai, and Brent Waters)
 There is no indistinguishability obfuscation in Pessiland (by Tal Moran and Alon Rosen)
 Oneway functions and (im)perfect obfuscation (by Ilan Komargodski, Tal Moran, Moni Naor, Rafael Pass, Alon Rosen, and Eylon Yogev)
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Linyue Zhu

25 
2015.11.19 
 iO and coRP != NP implies OWFs
 VBB implies OWFs
 differinginputs obfuscation
 extractable witness encryption

Papers:
 On the (im)possibility of obfuscating programs (by Boaz Barak, Oded Goldreich, Russell Impagliazzo, Steven Rudich, Amit Sahai, Salil Vadhan, and Ke Yang)
 Oneway functions and (im)perfect obfuscation (by Ilan Komargodski, Tal Moran, Moni Naor, Rafael Pass, Alon Rosen, and Eylon Yogev)
 Differinginputs obfuscation and applications (by Prabhanjan Ananth, Dan Boneh, Sanjam Garg, Amit Sahai, and Mark Zhandry)
 On Extractability (a.k.a. DifferingInputs) Obfuscation (by Elette Boyle, KaiMin Chung, and Rafael Pass)
Videos:
Scribe notes: by Akshay Ramachandran

26 
2015.11.24 
Class project presentations:
 Tobias Boelter, Akshay Srinivasan
 Alex Irpan
 Tongzhou Wang
 Brian Gluzman
 Pratyush Mishra
 Gil Lederman


X 
2015.11.26 
No class.

No class.

27 
2015.12.01 
Class project presentations:
 Joseph Hui, Chenyang Yuan
 Rohan Mathuria
 Akshay Ramachandran
 Qi Zhong, Linyue Zhu


28 
2015.12.03 
Class project presentations:
 Lynn Chua, Pasin Manurangsi
 David Dinh
 Peter Manohar, Xingyou Song
 Willem Van Eck
 Ben Caulfield
 Praagya Singh

Parting materials:
