Other methods exist for the simulation of lossy transmission lines.
The pseudo-lumped method is a variant of the lumped-RLC method.
In this method, the line is segmented, but the inductors and capacitors in each segment are replaced by a lossless transmission line.
In the convolution method, to be described in more detail later, the linearity of the line is exploited by convolving the impulse-respones of the line with the voltages and currents at the end of the line.
Waveform relaxation has recently been used for lossy line simulation - the key feature here is to solve the circuit's equations in both the time and frequency domains.
FFTs are used to switch domains when necessary