Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1   The Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
1.2   Basic Absorption and Emission Processes
1.3   Atomic Energy Levels and Allowed Transitions
1.4   Scattering, Diffraction, and Refraction of Electromagnetic Radiation

Chapter 2. Radiation and Scattering at EUV and Soft X-Ray Wavelengths

2.1   Maxwell's Equations and the Wave Equation
2.2   Calculating Scattered Fields
2.3   Radiated Power and Poynting's Theorem
2.4   Scattering Cross Sections
2.5   Scattering by a Free Electron
2.6   Scattering by Bound Electrons
2.7   Scattering by a Multi-Electron Atom

Chapter 3. Wave Propagation and Refractive Index at EUV and Soft X-Ray Wavelengths

3.1   The Wave Equation and Refractive Index
3.2   Phase Variation and Absorption of Propagating Waves
3.3   Reflection and Refraction at an Interface
3.4   Total External Reflection of Soft X-Rays and EUV Radiation
3.5   Reflection Coefficients at an Interface
3.6   Brewster's Angle
3.7   Field Penetration into a Lossy Medium near the Critical Angle
3.8   Determination of d and b: The Kramer-Kronig Relations
3.9   Applications to Glancing Incidence Optics
3.10   Enhanced Reflectivity from Periodic Structures

Chapter 4. Multilayer Interference Coatings

4.1   Introduction
4.2   Constructive Interference of Scattered Radiation
4.3   Computational Model for Calculating Reflection from a Multilayer Mirror
4.4   Multilayer Fabrication
4.5   Applications of Multilayer Coated Optics

Chapter 5. Synchrotron Radiation

5.1   Introduction
5.2   Characteristics of Bending Magnet Radiation
5.3   Characteristics of Undulator Radiation
5.4   Undulator Radiation: Calculations of Radiated Power, Brightness, and Harmonics
5.5   The Scale of Harmonic Motion
5.6   The Transition from Undulator to Wiggler Radiation
5.7   Wiggler Power and Flux
5.8   Femtosecond Pulse Generation

Chapter 6. Physics of Hot Dense Plasmas

6.1   Introduction
6.2   Short and Long Range Interactions in Plasmas
6.3   Basic Parameters for Describing a Plasma
6.4   Microscopic, Kinetic and Fluid Descriptions of a Plasma
6.5   Numerical Simulations
6.6   Density Gradients, UV and EUV Probing
6.7   X-Ray Emission From a Hot Dense Plasma
6.8   High Harmonic Generation with Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Chapter 7. Extreme Ultraviolet And Soft X-Ray Lasers

7.1   Basic Processes
7.2   Gain
7.3   Recombination Lasing with Hydrogen-Like Carbon Ions
7.4   Collisionally Pumped Neon-Like Lasers
7.5   Compact EUV Lasers

Chapter 8. Coherence at Short Wavelengths

8.1   Concepts of Spatial and Temporal Coherence
8.2   Examples of Experiments that Require Coherence
8.3   Spatial and Spectral Filtering
8.4   Spatial and Spectral Filtering of Undulator Radiation
8.5   Spatially Coherent EUV and Soft X-Ray Lasers
8.6   The van Cittert-Zernike Theorem
8.7   Examples of High Contrast Fringes Formed at Short Wavelengths

Chapter 9. X-Ray Microscopy with Diffractive Optics

9.1   Introduction
9.2   The Fresnel Zone Plate Lens
9.3   Diffraction of Radiation by Pinhole Apertures and Zone Plates
9.4   Spatial Resolution of a Zone Plate Lens
9.5   Depth of Focus and Spectral Bandwidth
9.6   Spatial Resolution Beyond the Rayleigh Limit: The Effective Angular Illumination Profile
9.7   High Resolution Soft X-Ray Microscopy
9.8   Applications to the Life Sciences
9.9   Applications to the Physical Sciences: Analytic Tools for Materials and Surface Science at Spatial Resolutions Below 100 Nanometers
9.10   Zone Plate Fabrication

Chapter 10. Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Lithography

10.1   Deep Ultraviolet (DUV) Lithography and Beyond
10.2   Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography
10.3   X-Ray Proximity Lithography
Appendix  A.   Units and Physical Constants
Appendix  B.   Electron Binding Energies, Principal K- and L- Shell Emission Lines, and Auger Electron Energies
Appendix  C.   Atomic Scattering Factors, Absorption Coefficients, and Sub-Shell Photoionization Cross-Sections
Appendix  D.   Mathematical and Vector Relations
Appendix E.   Some Integrations in k, w-Space
Appendix  F.   Lorentz Space-Time Transformation