Detecting lithium plating dynamics in a solid-state battery with operando X-ray computed tomography using machine learning


Operando X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) provides an opportunity to observe the evolution of Li structures inside pouch cells. Segmentation is an essential step to quantitatively analyzing µCT datasets but is challenging to achieve on operando Li-metal battery datasets due to the low X-ray attenuation of the Li metal and the sheer size of the datasets. Herein, we report a computational approach, batteryNET, to train an Iterative Residual U-Net-based network to detect Li structures. The resulting semantic segmentation shows singular Li-related component changes, addressing diverse morphologies in the dataset. In addition, visualizations of the dead Li are provided, including calculations about the volume and effective thickness of electrodes, deposited Li, and redeposited Li. We also report discoveries about the spatial relationships between these components. The approach focuses on a method for analyzing battery performance, which brings insight that significantly benefits future Li-metal battery design and a semantic segmentation transferrable to other datasets.

In Nature Partner Journals | Computational Materials